Freitag, 17. Juni 2022

Plastik-zersetzende Pilze, Bakterien, Enzyme, Insekten und Algen

Biologische Degradation von Kunststoffen, biotische Zersetzung, biologische Abbaubarkeit


Pilze fressen Plastik - fungi/mushrooms eating plastic

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pestalotiopsis_microspora

https://www.bbc.com/news/business-57733178

https://www.biohm.co.uk/single-post/2020/05/14/how-mushrooms-can-solve-our-problems-with-plastic-waste

Tübinger Gießkannenschimmel (Aspergillus tubingensis) 

Bakterien fressen Plastik - bacteria eating plastic

Bakterien in Kuhmägen können Polyester zersetzen: https://blog.frontiersin.org/2021/07/02/frontiers-bioengineering-biotechnology-bacteria-in-cow-stomach-can-breakdown-disgest-plastic-waste/

"Together Is Better: The Rumen Microbial Community as Biological Toolbox for Degradation of Synthetic Polyesters": Felice Quartinello, Klemens Kremser, Herta Schoen, Donatella Tesei, Leon Ploszczanski, Magdalena Nagler, Sabine M. Podmirseg, Heribert Insam, Guadalupe Piñar, Katja Sterflingler, Doris Ribitsch, Georg M. Guebitz 

https://www.pressetext.com/ Mikroben fressen Plastikdreck im Meer

Morgan Vague: These bacteria eat plastic | TED Talk 

Pseudomonas morganensis: A Reed College Biology Student Discovered Plastic-Eating Bacteria After Smuggling Bags of Dirt Through the Houston Airport - Willamette Week 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideonella_sakaiensis

https://www.forbes.com/sites/scottcarpenter/2021/03/10/the-race-to-develop-plastic-eating-bacteria/ 

Enzym zerlegt Plastik binnen 24 Stunden

https://newatlas.com/environment/fast-acting-enzyme-plastics-24-hours/  


Kunststoff-zersetzende Enzyme:

https://www.nature.com/ Lu, H., Diaz, D.J., Czarnecki, N.J. et al. Machine learning-aided engineering of hydrolases for PET depolymerization. Nature 604, 662–667 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04599-z

Guardian/ e360 Yale / climatedesk / Bugs Are Evolving to Eat Plastic, Study Find

Plastic-Degrading Potential across the Global Microbiome Correlates with Recent Pollution Trends. Authors: Jan Zrimec https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7099-961X, Mariia Kokina, Sara Jonasson, Francisco Zorrilla, Aleksej Zelezniak

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/prot.26325 : Plastics degradation by hydrolytic enzymes: The plastics-active enzymes database—PAZy

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2021.803896/full The Bacteroidetes Aequorivita sp. and Kaistella jeonii Produce Promiscuous Esterases With PET-Hydrolyzing Activity 

https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/AEM.01095-19 (...) " no enzymes acting on the high-molecular-weight polymers polystyrene, polyamide, polyvinylchloride, polypropylene, ether-based polyurethane, and polyethylene are known. Together, these polymers comprise more than 80% of annual plastic production"

Palm, G.J., Reisky, L., Böttcher, D. et al. Structure of the plastic-degrading Ideonella sakaiensis MHETase bound to a substrate. Nat Commun 10, 1717 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09326-3

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/PETase 

Low Carbon Footprint Recycling of Post-Consumer PET Plastic with a Metagenomic Polyester Hydrolase / https://chemistry-europe.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cssc.202101062

Dimarogona M, Nikolaivits E, Kanelli M, Christakopoulos P, Sandgren M, Topakas E. Structural and functional studies of a Fusarium oxysporum cutinase with polyethylene terephthalate modification potential. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Nov;1850(11):2308-17. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.08.009. Epub 2015 Aug 17. PMID: 26291558

ENZYCLE looks for new enzymatic processes to treat and to recycle plastic fractions that could not be recycled before.

University of Portsmouth/ Centre for Enzyme Innovation "We have the expertise and facilities required to help tackle the challenge of plastic pollution and develop enzyme-based low energy, low carbon, biorecycling solutions." 

"BOTTLE™ efforts include the development of improved catalytic and biocatalytic recycling strategies to break down today's plastics into chemical building blocks for manufacturing higher-value products (upcycling) and the design of tomorrow's plastics to be recyclable-by-design."

Characterization and engineering of a two-enzyme system for plastics depolymerization / Brandon C. Knott, Erika Erickson, Mark D. Allen, Japheth E. Gado, Rosie Graham, Fiona L. Kearns, Isabel Pardo, Ece Topuzlu, Jared J. Anderson, Harry P. Austin, Graham Dominick, Christopher W. Johnson, Nicholas A. Rorrer, Caralyn J. Szostkiewicz, Valérie Copié, Christina M. Payne, H. Lee Woodcock, Bryon S. Donohoe, Gregg T. Beckham , John E. McGeehan


Insekten fressen Plastik:

microbiologyresearch.org: Insights into plastic biodegradation: community composition and functional capabilities of the superworm (Zophobas morio) microbiome in styrofoam feeding trials / https://doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000842 / Jiarui Sun, Apoorva Prabhu, Samuel T. N. Aroney, Christian Rinke

Zophobas Morio: Schwarzkäfer-Larve frisst Styropor

Blue City Lab/ blue economy: Mehlwürmer, Morio-Würmer

Raupe der Wachsmotte - Galleria mellonella 

https://www.startpage.com/sp/search?query=wachsmotte+polyethylen

Plodia interpunctella - die gemeine Dörrobst- oder Hausmotte  


Algen fressen Plastik

https://www.uni-marburg.de/de/aktuelles/news/2019/meeresalgen-verdauen-plastik-mittels-bakterienenzym

https://massivesci.com/notes/microorganisms-microplastics-aquatic-food-web/

Phaeodactylum tricornutum - Meeresalgen verdauen Plastik mittels Bakterienenzym  

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Auch wenn die hier zitierten Biotechnologien und machinelearning-gestützten Forschungsmethoden teilweise etwas faustisches haben, geben sie immerhin Hoffnung, das Ausmass des menschlichen Versagens in der Plastikmüll-Vermeidung bzw. -beseitigung etwas zu lindern. 

Generell ist ein Vermeiden der Produktion im Sinne der degrowth-Konzepte einfacher als technische Verschlimmbesserungs-Versuche des Kaputtreparierens ökonomischer Fehler, die durch übertriebenen Konsum und rücksichtslose Gier nach Profitmaximierung verursacht wurden.

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sciencedirect.com/ journal articles and publications on biological degradation

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kunststoff#Abbau

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degradation_von_Kunststoffen#Biologische_Degradation

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biologische_Abbaubarkeit

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biotische_Zersetzung

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposition

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposizione_(biologia)

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Descomposici%C3%B3n

Suchbegriffe für weiterführende Recherchen:  

biologische Dekomposition, biologische Zersetzung, biologische Abbaubarkeit, biotischer Abbau, biotische Degradierung,biotische Zersetzung, Biokorrosion, zirkuläre Ökonomie, waste to X, Biokatalyse, biologische Transformation, Hydrolyse, Hydrolasen, depolymerization, biorecycling

 

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